Paediatric urology deals with the surgical disease, diagnosis, and treatment of the genitourinary system which includes kidneys, ureter, urethra, and reproductive organs in children. These diseases can be congenital or acquired.
The most common disease affecting children are
- Urinary tract infection (UTI) – Infection of the organs of urinary system is more common in women than men. The common infections include glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis.
- Hypospadias – This condition is present at birth, where the opening of the urethra is located below its normal position.
- Nocturnal enuresis – Commonly called as bedwetting and is more common in children. Children with this condition urinate while sleeping.
- Ureteropelvic junction obstruction – The junction where the kidney and bladder joins, called as ureteropelvic junction gets narrowed resulting in reduced flow of urine from kidney. This condition may lead to enlargement of kidney and kidney damage.
- Vesicoureteral Reflux – It is a congenital condition and is caused by backflow of urine from bladder to ureter tubes during urination.
- Antenatal Hydronephrosis – It is a condition present at birth, occurs when the kidneys are obstructed resulting in enlargement of kidneys. It is caused due to narrowing of ureter tube.
These conditions can be diagnosed by blood tests, kidney scan, ultrasound scan, cystoscopy, or MRI scans.